Effect of combined Calcium and Vitamin D supplementation in non-diabetic adults

The Calcium and Vitamin D for prevention of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  (CaDDM) study was a short-term (4 months), randomized clinical trial to examine for a mechanistic link between vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation and risk of diabetes in people with prediabetes or earl diabetes not requiring medications. The 2×2 factorial design tested the effect of vitamin D3 (2,000 IU once daily) and calcium carbonate (400 mg twice daily) supplementation on disposition index, an IVGTT-derived composite measure of beta cell function that accounts for insulin sensitivity. Secondary outcomes included: insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, lipoprotein profile and blood pressure

In a post-hoc analysis using data from a completed trial, vitamin D and calcium supplementation given over 3 years improved insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic adults aged 65 who had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) at baseline (see figure). There was no effect among those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), which is not surprising because if function is normal, nothing will make it “more normal!”

We concluded that in healthy, older adults with prediabetes (as defined by abnormal fasting glucose levels), supplementation with calcium and vitamin D attenuates increases in glycemia and insulin resistance that occur over time. However, our team cautioned that our findings should be considered hypothesis generating and need to be confirmed in randomized trials specifically designed for the outcomes of interest. We subsequently conducted such trials

Results were published in Diabetes Care

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